Management uses economic income and economic net income as financial measures to evaluate the profitability and efficiency of its business model. Economic income and economic net income are not presented in accordance with GAAP. Economic income excludes from income before provision for income taxes:
- the non-cash interest expense associated with the liability for shares subject to mandatory redemption. Upon consummation of the initial public offering, such mandatory redemption obligation terminated and the Company no longer reflects in its financial statements non-cash interest expense or the liability related to such obligation; and
- the reorganization-related share-based compensation, which results in non-cash compensation expense reported over the vesting period. In addition, upon the consummation of the initial public offering, the vesting terms related to the ownership of its employees were modified, including the Company’s named executive officers, other than William Manning. Such individuals were entitled to 15% of their ownership interests upon the consummation of the offering, and 15% of their ownership interests over the subsequent three years. The remaining ownership interests are subject to performance-based vesting over such three-year period. Such new vesting terms will not result in dilution to the number of outstanding shares of the Company’s Class A common stock. As a result of such vesting requirements, the Company will recognize non-cash compensation charges through 2014.
Economic net income is a non-GAAP measure of after-tax operating performance and equals the Company’s economic income less adjusted income taxes. Adjusted income taxes are estimated assuming the exchange of all outstanding units of Manning & Napier Group, LLC into Class A common stock on a one-to-one basis. Therefore, all income of Manning & Napier Group, LLC allocated to the units of Manning & Napier Group, LLC is treated as if it were allocated to Manning & Napier and represents an estimate of income tax expense at an effective rate of 38.25% on economic income for each respective period, reflecting assumed federal, state and local income taxes. Economic net income per adjusted share is equal to economic net income divided by the total number of adjusted Class A common shares outstanding. The number of adjusted Class A common shares outstanding for all periods presented is determined by assuming that all outstanding units of Manning & Napier Group, LLC are converted into our outstanding Class A common stock as of December 31, 2011, on a one-to-one basis. The Company’s management uses economic net income, among other financial data, to determine the earnings available to distribute as dividends to holders of its Class A common stock and to the holders of the units of Manning & Napier Group, LLC.