Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net for the 2011 third quarter of $16.8 million included $2.1 million of non-cash costs related to interest rate swap contracts. Although these contracts were terminated prior to 2011, the related costs are being amortized over the original term of the swap contracts. Interest expense, net for the 2010 third quarter was $15.8 million. Excluding interest expense associated with the terminated swap contracts, interest expense decreased $1.0 million primarily due to a lower effective interest rate.
The 2011 third quarter income tax benefit of $0.2 million reflected an income tax benefit on current operations offset by certain discrete income tax expense items. Income taxes for the 2010 third quarter included a one-time $2.2 million expense related to the repatriation of earnings from Canada.
Use of Non-GAAP Measures
The Company presents adjusted income (loss) from operations, adjusted operating margin, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin, adjusted net income (loss), adjusted net income (loss) per share, free cash flow and net debt as non-GAAP measures. Adjusted income (loss) from operations represents income (loss) from operations excluding restructuring. This amount divided by net sales is adjusted operating margin. Adjusted EBITDA represents income (loss) from operations excluding restructuring, depreciation and amortization. This amount divided by net sales is adjusted EBITDA margin. The Company presents adjusted income (loss) from operations, adjusted operating margin, adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin because these are measures management believes are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and interested parties in the evaluation of financial performance. Adjusted net income (loss) and adjusted net income (loss) per share exclude restructuring, certain costs from settled interest rate swap contracts, the income tax effects of these excluded items and a tax adjustment for the repatriation of earnings.These items are excluded because they are not considered indicative of recurring operations. Free cash flow represents cash flow from operating activities less capital expenditures. It is presented as a measurement of cash flow because it is commonly used by the investment community. Net debt represents total debt less cash and cash equivalents. Net debt is commonly used by the investment community as a measure of indebtedness. These non-GAAP measures have limitations as analytical tools, and securities analysts, investors and interested parties should not consider any of these non-GAAP measures in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of the Company's results as reported under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP").