(Article updated with executive comments and gold price information.)HOLLYWOOD, Fla. ( TheStreet ) -- Gold mining companies raked in the cash in 2010 thanks to record-high gold prices, but rising costs are likely to be a growing threat this year despite gold reaching record highs.
Most companies think of cash costs as how much it takes to produce an ounce of gold. Gold companies sell secondary metals like silver or copper that are the by-products of gold mining to help offset the cost of mining gold. That accounting can also cloud the picture.
It cost Yamana Gold (AUY - Get Report), for example, $465 to produce an ounce of gold in the fourth quarter, but counting its by-product credits that number was negative $34, which incidentally is expected to jump to$250 in 2011 as rising input costs catch up to the company. Taking into account total costs -- or operating costs plus capital expenditure plus exploration costs -- muddies the issue further. The industry average is around $900 to $1,000, which puts profit margins in a whole new light. "You've got to look at the overall cost of producing an ounce," says Nick Holland, CEO of Gold Fields (GFI - Get Report), "including sustaining growth capital and combining the two, GNA, operating costs, etc." Gold Fields estimates that total costs could be between $750 to $1,050 an ounce in 2011.